Sunday, May 24, 2020
The Womens Aid federation defines domestic violence as the physical, psychological, sexual or financial violence that takes place within a family type or an intimate relationship, and forms a pattern of coercive and controlling behaviour. It may involve partners, ex-partners or other relatives. Though the more common view of domestic violence is that it is the behaviour of some disturbed sick individuals. However sociologists have questioned this, saying that its far too widespread to be the work of just a few individuals. Domestic violence accounts for almost a quarter of all violent crimes and is estimated that 6.6 million domestic assaults occur every year. Domestic ViolenceÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Secondly police and prosecutors maybe somewhat reluctant to investigate, record or prosecute those cases that are reported to them. According to David Cheal this reluctance is due the fact that the police make 3 assumptions that cause them to be unwilling to become involved in the family. The first assumption is that the family is private so access to it should be limited, secondly they see the family as a good thing and so they tend to neglect the darker side of it and thirdly its assumed that the women is able to leave if she is suffering abuse and is unhappy, though this is not technically true many women that suffer abuse are often financially dependant on their husbands and are actually unable to leave. Radical Feminists believe that all societies have been founded in patriarchy and that the key division in society is not between social classes but between men and women. Radical Feminists see men as the enemy, the source of womens oppression and exploitation and they see the family and marriage as the key institutions in patriarchal society, to them its all very one sided, men benefit from womens unpaid domestic labour and they dominate women through violence and threat of it, women gain nothing from the relationship. For Radical feminists the patriarchal system must be overturned especially the root of womens oppression, which are men and theShow MoreRelatedDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Domestic Violence in Literature Domestic violence entails transgressions that tend to exhibit regular occurrence worldwide. Domestic violence is substantially attributable to the psychological, physical, mental, and sexual forms of suffering or anguish. Domestic violence further refers to the family violence or spousal abuse that defines the evident pattern of violent behaviors executed by one spouse to the other in the close affiliations that include courtships, matrimony, family, or individualsRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTo date, although domestic violence has been researched, the law remains a constraint to victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ growth and stability. The laws and programs provided in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society are limited and affect the victims exit from domestic violence relationships. Further research could propel an initiation of better-developed laws and programs and cause a great impact in how victims respond to domestic violence. Few studies have researched how suc cessful domestic violence victims have been with the legal processRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1204 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages a.INTRODUCTION Domestic violence is defined as a violent behavior or an act of abuse between couples in the home. It is called family violence. Usually most women are harmed and the witnesses of this violence are also effected. This abuse is frowned upon in todays society. In Chile domestic violence wasn t taken seriously because of the cultural norm which was that men controlled the women. There are many treatments for the abuse but they are only focused on the victim; the one committing theRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesissue of domestic violence. Defined by domesticviolence.org (2012) as a behavior Ã¢â¬Å"used by one person in a relationship to control the otherÃ¢â¬ , domestic violence can be physical, emotional, sexual, verbal, or even financial. Although the issue of abusers being punished is a significant one, it must be realized that there are victims, and those victims need help. Some countries have no concern or sympathy for victims, as mo re than twenty countries have no laws against abuse (Domestic Violence in DevelopingRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDomestic violence is a very important discussion subject, because it touches all levels of society, and it is widely spreading across a multitude of social groups. This social issue at present appears in different levels of society, and cannot be ignored by social institutions and people. The issue of domestic violence cannot be avoided because of the unfortunately high rate of abusive behavior, and more and more people being affected by abuse every day. People and social institutions cannot closeRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society869 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesimbalance of neurotransmitters can impact an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s development and overall self-image. Equally, an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s experience with domestic violence and its horrific ramifications can also impact a personÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological, emoti onal, physical, and social growth. Domestic Violence Domestic violence, is a virulent calamity that has woven its way into our society for thousands of years. It is not biased to a particular race, group, or culture. Grievously, it has an everlasting negative impact onRead MoreDomestic Violence on Women in Society1730 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDomestic Violence on Women and girls in Society Tabinda Asghar Dow Institute of Nursing Abstract Violence alongside women and girls is a sign of previously uneven authority relations among men and women, which have led to command over and unfairness against women by men and to the avoidance of the full progression of women. These types of terrible actions against women and girls continues to be a global epidemic that kills, tortures, and wound- physically, psychologically, sexually and economicallyRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn America most cases of Domestic Violence are never actually reported, many times these cases go unheard and the victims suffer in silence. The worn out cries of a battered woman as she lays on the ground clutching herself and begging her significant other to just stop. The bruises and cuts that remain unreported due to the victim claiming they accidentally fell yet again. The abusers tend to make the victim almost entirely dependable on them. An abuser will do this to gain control and to createRead MoreD omestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDomestic violence can be describe as one of the most gruesome and misunderstood crime in our society. It can be as simple as verbal abuse and as complicated as a homicide where we walk a thin line between intentional harm and self-defence. There are two distinctive differences or stages of domestic violence. The first being some sort of Ã¢â¬Å"controlling behaviour explained as a range of acts designed to make a person subordinate and/or dependent by isolating them from sources of support, exploiting theirRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society904 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesout of every four women will go through domestic violence situations in life. (safehorizon.com) Domestic violence is aggressive behavior towards someone else at home or in a relationship. This can happen at home between spouses/partners or parents and children. Domestic violence should be given more acknowledgment in the media and in c lassrooms so that people are aware of what is happening. If we do not continue to advocate for victims and educate society, victims will continue to suffer physically
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Should English Become the Official Language in the United States? It may be a surprise for many people, but among the fifty or so countries using English as their official language the USA is not listed. The USA does not have the official language at all. After the War for Independence there was an initiative to make English the official language of the new nation, but it was brought down as undemocratic and threatening for the individual freedom. The American government back then was very particular about following the Constitution to the letter and refused everything that seemed to limit personal freedom. The USA was the nation that accepted immigrants from any other nation and any other part of the world without caring about nationality, language and religion of the newcomer. The right to speak the language of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s choice, if one so wishes, was treated in the same way as the right to believe in whatever God one believes. However, every one or two years the initiative of making English the federally accepted official language is renewed, getting more prominent at the times of economic crises: the English-speaking citizens feel threatened by the growing rates of immigration and try to make it more difficult for the foreigners to become citizens in their turn, saving working places for the Americans. Some consider the official status of English as nation-uniting initiative; the others consider it to be anti-immigrant policy Ã¢â¬â yet, it is hard to make a downright decision on what it is. The only thing that can be said there is that nothing throughout the history of humankind reflected the ideals of freedom all the reasonable people aspire to better than the original American Constitution. Every amendment makes its modern counterpart further from that ideal; and if the Founding Fathers consider official language to be undemocratic, then it probably is.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Thomas HookerÃ (July 5, 1586 Ã¢â¬â July 7, 1647) founded the Connecticut Colony after a disagreement with the church leadership in Massachusetts. He was key in the development of the new colony including inspiring the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. He argued for a wider number of individuals being given the right to vote. In addition, he believed in freedom of religion for those who believed in the Christian faith. Finally, his descendants included many individuals who played key roles in the development of Connecticut.Ã Early Life Thomas Hooker was born in Leicestershire England, most probably in either MarefieldÃ orÃ Birstall,Ã He attended school at Market Bosworth before entering QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s College at Cambridge in 1604. He earned his BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree before moving to Emmanuel College where he earned his MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s. It was at university that Hooker converted to the Puritan faith.Ã Immigrated to Massachusetts Bay Colony From college, Hooker became a preacher. He was known for his speaking abilities along with his ability to help his parishioners. He eventually moved to St MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s, Chelmsford as a preacher in 1626. However, he soon retired after being suppressed as a leader of Puritan sympathizers. When he was called to court to defend himself, he fled to the Netherlands. Many Puritans were following this path, as they were able to freely practice their religion there. From there, he decided to immigrate to the Massachusetts Bay Colony, arriving aboard the ship called the Griffin on September 3, 1633. This ship would carry Anne Hutchinson to the New World a year later. Hooker settled in Newtown, Massachusetts. This would later be renamed as Cambridge. He was appointed as pastor of Ã¢â¬Å"The Church of Christ at Cambridge,Ã¢â¬ becoming the first minister of the town. Founding Connecticut Hooker soon found himself at odds with another pastor named John Cotton because, in order to vote in the colony, a man had to be examined for their religious beliefs. This effectively suppressed Puritans from voting if their beliefs were in opposition to the majority religion. Therefore, in 1636, Hooker and Reverend Samuel Stone led a group of settlers to form Hartford in the soon to be formed Connecticut Colony. The Massachusetts General Court had granted them the right to set up three towns: Windsor, Wethersfield, and Hartford. The title of the colony was actually named after the Connecticut River, a name that came from the Algonquian language meaning long, tidal river. Ã Fundamental Orders of Connecticut In May 1638, a General Court met to write a written constitution. Hooker was politically active at this time and preached a sermon that basically espoused the idea of the Social Contract, stating that authority was only granted with the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s consent. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut were ratified on January 14, 1639. This would be the first written constitution in America and a foundation for future founding documents including the US Constitution. Ã The document included greater voting rights for individuals. It also included oaths of office which the governor and magistrates were required to take. Both of these oaths included lines that said they would agree to Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦promote the public good and peace of the same, according to the best of my skill; as also will maintain all lawful privileges of this Commonwealth: as also that all wholesome laws that are or shall be made by lawful authority here established, be duly executed; and will further the execution o f Justice according to the rule of Gods wordÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (The text has been updated to use modern spelling.) While it the individuals involved in the creation of the Fundamental Orders are unknown and no notes were taken during the proceedings, it is felt that Hooker was a key mover in the creation of this document. In 1662, King Charles II signed a Royal Charter combining the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies which basically agreed to the Orders as the political system to be adopted by the colony. Family Life When Thomas Hooker arrived in America, he was already married to his second wife named Suzanne. No records have been found concerning the name of his first wife. They had a son named Samuel. He was born in America, most probably in Cambridge. It is recorded that he graduated in 1653 from Harvard. He became a minister and well known in Farmington, Connecticut. He had many children including John and James, both of whom served as Speaker of the Connecticut Assembly. SamuelÃ¢â¬â¢s granddaughter, Sarah Pierpont would go on to marry Reverend Jonathan EdwardsÃ of Great Awakening fame. One of the ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢ descendants through his son would be American financier J. P. Morgan. Thomas and Suzanne also had a daughter named Mary. She would marry Reverend Roger Newton who founded Farmington, Connecticut before moving on to be a preacher in Milford. Death and Significance Hooker died at the age of 61 in 1647 in Connecticut. It is unknown his exact burial place though he is believed to be buried in Hartford. He was quite significant as a figure in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s past. First, he was a strong proponent of not requiring religious tests to allow for voting rights. In fact, he argued for religious tolerance, at least towards those of the Christian faith. He was also a strong proponent of the ideas behind the social contract and the belief that the people formed the government and it must answer to them. In terms of his religious beliefs, he did not necessarily believe that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace was free. Instead, he felt that individuals had to earn it through avoiding sin. In this way, he argued, individuals prepared themselves for heaven. He was a well-known speaker who wrote a number of books on theological subjects. These included The Covenant of Grace Opened, The Poor Doubting Christian Drawn to Christ in 1629, and A Survey Of The Summe Of Church-Discipline: Wherein The Way Of The Churches Of New England Is Warranted Out Of The Word in 1648. Interestingly, for someone so influential and well-known, no surviving portraits are known to exist.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction The topic of obesity in America is not a new one. In fact, the reality of obesity and its effects on America and its population has been mounting by the decade. Currently, more than 1/3 of adults in America are obese. This translates to 34.9% or 78.6 million people. Unfortunately, this number doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even account for the youth of America (CDC, 2014). To call this an epidemic could almost be considered an understatement. This paper will discuss the four major economic impacts linked to obesity: direct and indirect costs, labor productivity costs, transportation costs, and human capital costs. The paper will review each of the impacted costs. After reviewing the material however, one may be left with a different question all together. Which is the most pressing threat obesity or the economic impact it leaves behind? Direct and Indirect Costs Direct Costs Medical Costs The most obvious economic impact of obesity in America is that of direct medical costs. In 2008 the United States spent $147 billion in direct medical costs of obesity (CDC, 2014). Additionally, obesity can largely increase the risk of health conditions such as coronary heart disease, stroke, blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, multiple forms of cancer, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, liver and gallbladder disease, sleep apnea, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, infertility, and even mental health illnesses (CDC, 2011). Though some are higher contributors to medical spending theyShow MoreRelatedEffects Of Obesity In America1066 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn America more than 35.7% of the population is obese or overweight. (Ã¢â¬Å"Overweight and Obesity StatisticsÃ¢â¬ ). That is nearly around 78.6 million people in America (Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Obesity in U.S.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢). Americans are drastically becoming more obese over the years. There are a few americans who practice the hab it of physical exercise and many who have a habit of super-sizing. Foods in America are available anywhere and people become overwhelmed when they see food ads. The percentage of our economy who have lower incomeRead MoreCauses And Effects Of Obesity In America870 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Centers of Disease Control and Prevention defines obesity as having a BMI over 30 (CDC). In the year 2000, roughly 30 percent of 20 year olds in America were obese. By 2003 that number had risen to 32 percent. That is a small window of increase. From the 1970s to the early 2000s, the percent of obese Americans doubled. This means that in 1970, only 15 percent of Americans were obese, and in the thirty years following, obesity took a sharp rise. In 1960, 13 percent of Americans were obese. TheRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On America Essay2573 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesprescription. The shots worked, but likely amidst in the ushering in of the Korean, cold and Vietnam wars, civil rights movements, the decade of love, and the Kennedy tragedy and subsequential faux-pas of the Nixon administration, it must have slipped Americas minds. But never you fear! It is back with a feverous fervor, and thanks to the internet is feeding consumer madness the storm is bigger and more controversial than ever. Many people are on the fence about this and others are in hot debate, screamingRead MoreChildhood Obesity And Its Effects On America1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHave you ever wondered what are the major causes of obesity? The CDC (2017) states that one out of every five children in the U.S. are overweight or obese, and this number is continuing to rise. Wilson (2016) states that many children who are obese develop health complications, such as joint, gallbladder, and sleeping problems. The majority of children who are obese as kids tend to be obese as adults. Reason being, many children develop bad eating habits by learning from their surroundings. WhenRead MoreFactors And Effects Of Obe sity In America767 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesby crack a few decades ago. The nation is plagued by factors such as obesity, high sexually transmitted disease rates, tobacco and alcohol use, hard drugs such as cocaine and crystal meth, and prescription drug abuse, such as the ongoing opioid crisis. Factors such as the previously mentioned affect society by affecting large numbers of individuals in society. The United States of America has more recently been plagued by obesity, particularly in children. There has been an increase in the amountRead MoreEffects Of Obesity On America And Is Reaching All Time Heights879 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBradshaw AP Psychology May 7, 2015 Research Paper Obesity has been on the rise in America and is reaching all time heights. Obesity in America is at 27.7 percent and 1 in 5 children in America are obese currently and many will have to deal with it throughout their lifetime. With almost a third of our population struggling with this problem, the increasing obesity rates are becoming a major concern. Even though there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a single answer to why obesity has become so prevalent, there are many contributingRead MoreWeight On Obesity1551 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAll the Weight on Our Shoulders America is in danger; this rising threat is obesity, which is growing as the leading cause of preventable deaths just behind tobacco. Throughout its history, America has seen many different conflicts and threats rise and fall and with each threat. Each generation has risen to the challenge time and time again. Now, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the new age generationÃ¢â¬â¢s turn to do the same. Obesity is a significant problem and it must be curbed or it will crush us under its weight. As the citizensRead MoreChildhood Obesity Essay examples1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesForty years ago in America childhood obesity was rarely a topic of conversation. A survey done in the early 1970s showed that 6.1% of children between the ages 12 and 19 were overweight. Eight years later the same survey was done and 17.4% were considered overweight (Iannelli). Ã¢â¬Å"Childhood obesity epidemic in America is now a confirmed fact since the number of overweight or obese children has more than tripled during the last 30 ye arsÃ¢â¬ (Childhood Obesity Epidemic). Ã¢â¬Å"Over the last 20 years, the prevalenceRead MoreFood Policy Debates : Obesity And Advocates1075 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbased research information on several topics that relate to obesity. The article gives a lot of information about the battle between for fighting obesity and advocates that want Americans to make their own choices about the food they consume. This article covers a wide range of informative data from food served in schools, to the rise of industrial farming. The author is a freelance reporter that does not seem to have a bias for the obesity subject. Instead this author provides information for theRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity1637 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdestructive can effects of obesity be. First of all what is an obesity? Obesity is an abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more over an individual s ideal body weight. It is a very serious problem and is becoming very dangerous in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s w orld. Obesity is now considered to be the second most preventable death in America, with tobacco being the first. As use of tobacco rates continues to decline, the obesity rates continue to rise. With that being said, death numbers of obesity are going
Illustration Essay Topics List - a Brief Outline What Is So Fascinating About Illustration Essay Topics List? The author uses words to paint a picture for the reader in order for the reader can visualize what the writer is attempting to say. Do not overlook the hook since it will grab the reader attention. In addition, it provides the explanations for why the writer chose the topic. One of the significant actions to writing a very good essay is to first write an outline to acquire your thoughts into focus. You'll locate a range of distinct kinds of illustration in books, newspapers, posters and movies for example. Have a look at the samples so you know that you're in the most suitable spot. A specific case of illustration employs a personal experience or other individuals experience that is discovered to be dominant to present a central illustration essay example. There are dozens of sites where it is possible to get plenty of information. Choosing Good Illustration Essay Topics List Such personal aspect can be an exceptional individual, a substantial location, or an important object. An argumentative essay is the perfect remedy to convince someone of an idea or opinion it's a skill that should be applied in unison with lots of of research-based evidence and facts in order to create the argument that a great deal more convincing. At this point you have a notion of what an illustrative paper is. Keep it concise Most times, the duration of the paper is provided in the requirement s. Illustration Essay Topics List Fundamentals Explained There's, clearly, a limit on the variety of pages even our finest writers can produce with a pressing deadline, but usually, we can satisfy all the clients seeking urgent assistance. If there's a chance to involve such an individual in the practice of creating of your work, you need to use it. However abstract your idea is, it will grow more comprehensible once you provide examples to support your primary point. Very good essay writing always starts with the practice of planning. High school isn't free in Kenya. Writing descriptive essay students need to be more personal and use their imagination to the complete extent. They need to develop good study habits if they are to reach their full potential in any course or degree. They lead busy lives and often forget about an upcoming deadline. Also, you would like to incorporate a strong thesis statement which ensures you've got a crystal clear direction for your paper. Every kind of essay demands an outline. It's different from an argumentative essay as you do not have to show your point. Conclusion You should restate your illustration essay thesis here and offer an overview of the principal points and the conclusions you have made dependent on these sorts of points. When the assignment was completed it's prepared to be submitted after it's been checked for plagiarism and errors. In the event you're writing a five paragraph essay, it's in the major body paragraphs that could have a paragraph with illustrations. If you still find it troublesome to work on the illustrative essay or a different form of homework assignment, it's much better to contact expert essay writers ASAP. Follow this URL to look at an essay outline template. This informative article has several excellent illustration essay topics you can utilize to inspire you. It's a review of the topic which will be described in the paper. As soon as you choose this issue and paper format, you will need to create an outline. Before writing your paper, choose the best title. Sometimes your needs change, and that could indicate your study habits want to modify also. Habits are difficult to form, but in addition tricky to break, which can be beneficial for the future. Superior study habits are very beneficial for men and women in education, and they may be learned with enough repetition. Chemistry is a subject which, basically, supplies you with useful information regarding the different substances or kinds of materials that compose the physical world around us and the way in which they behave or react with one another. Everything can be thoroughly illustrated that is the reason why it is suitable to choose topics regarding the regions of our exp ertise. To understand several types of academic essays better, you might prefer the website full of completely free essay examples. Anyway, there you are able to find only fantastic examples of the topic. As soon as you choose a favorite topic to write about in your illustration essay paragraph, you must have the sources you should receive all of the info you will need for the topic. Topics for a terrific illustrative essay are found around us. Making something into a habit can take some moment, and that time can be challenging. Standard examples can give an instance of a typical experience that lots of people had. Write about getting rid of procrastination habit. Read a good deal before writing.
Question: Topic is then write about agreement and disagreement with the author about this topic, note your personal benefits with author giving reasons. Answer: Introduction This paper described the various aspect women in Islam. This chapter was written by men to explain the part of Islamic women condition which belongs to Muhammads. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the veil women condition in Islam. The majority of Muslim wear veil or hijab which is present obey of God. It indicates that how much womens are responsible about the religious concern. It is true that some communities or cultures are forcing to wear veil or hijab, but it is not a compulsory rule for everyone. It is indication of piety and it can become great strength of women patience. Islamic womens wear veil which a visible sign of Islam. Women who wear veil that the strong point for outweigh any disadvantage evoke by media bias. Veiling was not introduced by Muhammad because it was already exist among in the some classes, especially in the towns of Arabia. Quran didnt describe anywhere that women should guard their private parts through scarf over their bosoms. Only Muhammad suggests to their wife that they should use veil for few times after the death of Muhammad. In the upper class society was using veiling due to protect of wealth. In the early Muslim society, women attended mosque as a part of religious occasion. They also listened the Muhammads discussion about religious that is showing women came out from home with open their veil and participating in the society growth and development. The significant question was asked by women to Muhammad about Quran that why it is focused on men while women also accepted God and its speech and principle. After the death of Muhammads, womens ideas or opinions have weight in the matter of spiritual and social import. Muslim women remarried after widowhood or divorce without stigma there were many evidence available in the Muslim society. Muslim community was encouraging the men to more marriage with womens and protecting women life from any fear and insecurity, but women will have to live in the control of women in the veil. Muslim community is still providing women rights to inherent property, especially in speaking and half share of mens, but these all thing will be occur in the under control of men which presented that women will have to live in veil in Islamic counties. Author was agreed that Islamic womens were participating in mosque occasion that is showing women have lot of freedom in the Islamic countries to express their ideas or opinions. Muhammad wives was agree to use veiling in the life due to get especial reward in the heaven and follow the suggestion of their husband (Muhammad) after the death of them while author was disagreed about that his husband and Quran forces to use veil and covered private part through scarf over the bosoms. Through the use of veil women can protect their jewelers and their life from the thief when they went out of home. Many personal benefits we can get from it. Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be concluded that Islamic women wear veil it indicates the piety of Islamic women, but it is not compulsory for everyone. Which women are more close to their God and they wanted to show her piety which can adopt the veil. It indicates self-respect and social status of Islamic women. References Ahmed, L. (1992).Women and gender in Islam: Historical roots of a modern debate. USA: Yale University Press.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Questions: 1.What are the important factors that should be considered by tertiary sector employees when they are deciding whether to place their superannuation contributions in the Defined Benefit Plan or the Investment Choice Plan? 2.If the efficient-market hypothesis is true, the pension fund manager might as well select a portfolio with a pin. Explain why this is not the case? Answers: 1. There are varieties of factors that the staff of the tertiary sector must consider and taken care of at the decision-making period related to the individual superannuation contribution. The decision is done on whether the individual superannuation contribution must be placed with the choice of the investment plans. There is a wide range of difficulties and issues having an association with the concept of the time value of money. The concept of time value additionally supports the process of decision-making. Superannuation fund concept has been made to help people save money and uphold the same for their upcoming years of retirement. The Government of Australia is proactive towards obtaining a minimum amount of contribution towards the funds of retirement or superannuation on the behalf of the employees backed up by the employers. There was an increase of approximately 9% of total contributions. Further, there was a decline in the level of contributions of the employers that was ab out 3% of total salaries of staff members (Blake et al. 2014). The employees have been motivated for saving a proportion of their income for further investment in the superannuation funds. The motive of taking on the initiatives related to the policies of the superannuation and retirement funds. The force is towards the decline in the burden of the security of the individuals towards the payments of the pension and other provisions to act as a saviour at the time of retirement. As per the laws related to superannuation there has been an increase in the consciousness and awareness among the individuals. The individuals have become more aware about the benefits that can be derived in the future times. As per the current scenario, there are superannuation contributions of about a billion dollars. All the financial institutions apply the scenario and the procedure of contribution. Furthermore, the role considers the investment of the contributions in a profitable manner for offering with appropriate profits in the direction of supporting all the aspects of non-workers. Additionally, the largest investors are deemed to invest in the mutual funds other than the superannuation funds. For example, one of the principal individual and industry specific superannuation funds providers is UniSuper Ltd. The company offers services and has dealing with the superannuation of employees surrounded by the tertiary industry of education in the country Australia. The company consider the higher education institutions, several TAFE colleges and universities. A variety of revolutions has occurred within the administration of the superannuation funds and currently carrying on the provisioning of the services. The revolutions have led to an assurance of the growth and augmentation in the superannuation funds and other products that has a relation with the alternatives and choices of a variety of plans related to investment and retirement. There is thus maintenance of growth in the flexibleness among the members that takes place at the time of investment in the superannuation funds and such type of investments and funding. There are two types of superannuation funds among a wide range of funds that has been considered by the company UniSuper Ltd. The funds have increased the selection of the investments and the two categories include the plans of explained benefit and investment choice. The Explained Benefit Plan, as the name indicates is one among the many plans that offers many benefits to be offered at the time of retirement for the employees. The Plan is elucidated and clarified with the employment of a formula that comprise of a variety of factors like age along with number of years of the employees and the final average remuneration of employees. Additionally, the Plan takes into account the calculation and computation of the benefits provided to the employees In case of the tertiary education sector, the employees that adopt the above Explained Benefit Plan is taken into account by the trustees of the company i.e. UniSuper Ltd. The account takes into account the collection of the contributions made towards the superannuation funds and the trustees take the asset group under the determination process. The payout that is considered at the time of final payment is calculated by the formula given and the performance of the portfolio of the asset is considered of an irreverent nature as it do not have any impact on the overall payout at the time of retirement. The company on giving up the overall payout at the time of retirement includes the risk of investment that is faced by UniSuper Ltd. The above analysis presents an indication that there might not be any benefits from the portfolio of assets and that is excessive of the minimal amount of requirements in addressing the advantages of a define nature and character. The trustees of the Plan have obtained caution and judgment in terms of paying away the advantages of accumulation on an adjusted basis yearly. On the other hand, it does not show any amount of certainty and guarantee and there might be a development of a smaller fraction or proportion of the superannuation rewards (Walden 2014). The employees that consider the selection of the Plan of Investment Selection collect an account of individual investments. The plan takes into account the superannuation of personal nature and the ones sponsored by the employees. It also considers the annual allotment of proceeds assembled in the devoted contributions that has led to a decline in the charges of the management and administration. The value of time value is of significant nature, as the investors have to consider the value of a dollar in the upcoming years for the dollar that remains in the hand of investors. The amount of the dollar in the present year can be utilised towards investing for earning the capital gains and interest earned. Due to the inflationary fluctuations, the dollar in the recent years will be of a decreased value that has been promised for the forthcoming years. The time value of money is thus an efficient part of the investment decisions and other plans related to the investments. The money can be utilised in a productive and profitable manner and thus there might be distinctiveness in the value that has a reliance on the period at which it is collected or paid. Particularly, the worth and the actual value of the amount of wealth selected are considered valuable in comparison to the upcoming values. There might be considerations made by the investors regarding the time value that the money has due to a variety of reasons and factors. The reasons take into account consumption, inflation, risk and uncertainty and the opportunities related to the investment. The investors can also give a thought related with the risky nature and uncertainty in the outflows of the cash in the upcoming future years. Further, there is uncertainty in the inflows of the cash in future as they have a reliance on the creditors and the financial institutions like banks (Turner 2014). The employees have an option of selecting a number of types of assets or portfolios and can undertake the selection of the strategies that are described as under: Shares fund: The savings has a reliance on the shares of both domestic and international nature. Secure fund: The cash and securities of fixed-asset nature in Australia Stable fund: The amount of fixed interests and securities of bonds and reduced disclosure to the property and shares of both local and international concerns Trustees selection fund: Property assets and the investments of private equity and infrastructure, Balanced fund of the shares of both local and international concerns The overall payout at the time of retirement for the employees considering the selection of the funds of investment selection has a reliance on the returns collected. The returns are gathered by the means of the investment strategy chosen and they have a dealing related to the risk of related investments. The company UniSuper Ltd offers their employees a wide variety of products for investment at the time of retirement. The offers include the investment selection plan and the Explained Benefit Plan for providing them with a number of advantages at the time of retirement. The offers take in the options of investment and the plans of pension that include the following: Individual life indexed pensions: These pension plans are not provided at the time of the death of individuals. Instead, they are provided an amount of income that will be higher than the regular income. The amount is paid in consideration to the benchmark set with the indexed pension, discussed below. Indexed pensions: These pensions provide an ordinary amount of income that is indexed in relation to the price increases. These pensions are well thought-out to be due for the period of the lives of individuals. The pensions are then relocated to the spouse of person and have a reliance on the demise of the individuals. Rollover options: These pensions provide the person to select the shifting intended for rolling over the retirement fund of the individual. Allocated pensions: These pensions provide income of regular nature at the selection stage. It also offers accessibility to the individuals towards their capital along with four separate strategies of investments that helps the capital to be invested by people. The balance remaining in the account of pension after the death of the individual is dispersed to the dependents of the individual. Part-cash distributions: In such cases, the individuals are offered with the options of collecting a percentage desired by the retirement fund of an individual. The distributions are subjected to tax and other approvals and regulations as the amount distributed is utilised and consumed for the investment and individual purposes. The individual participating in the same can also go with the selection of combing a number of options that are important to use the income for meeting up the requirements of the lifestyle. Some important factors are to be considered by the individuals in the decision making process that has a relation with the risk of investments and profiles off returns. The important factors include the aspects that have relation with the inflation and time value of money (Lekander 2015). 2. Efficient market hypothesis is a theory that takes into account the assumption about the fact that the current prices of stocks have a major focus on the information obtainable about the value of the company. It is also known as the Random Walk Theory and it suggests that there is no other way to attain profits rather than getting access to the data of the company. The theory has dealing with the major concerns related to finance and goes into the search of the reason of the changes in the prices that occurs in the markets and securities. The changes are marked and the same are determined for knowing the cause behind the same. A number of investors attempt to disclose a particular amount of securities that are rated too low and have been under the prediction of getting their value enhanced in upcoming years. The investors in majority consider the selection of the securities and stock that could outperform the entire market and the investors include the manager of the pension funds. For the above reasons, there is a tendency of utilising the numerous tools and techniques related to the forecasting and valuation. The same can help in the facilitation of taking efficient decisions related to the investments. In addition, the processed edges formed by a manager of pension funds can be altered into considerable and significant amount of profits. The investors take into account the considerations that an efficient market is to be thought of along with the indications of the high and low prices (Martinsuo 2013). There is a conception that even a manager of the pension funds can chose a portfolio easily in the occasion of the efficient market hypothesis being accurate. On the other hand, it is contrasted, as is it not necessary that the diversified portfolio will have a similar structure and correlation with the stocks in an increasing manner. Thus, the funds constitute higher and exceptional amount of risks that may not fall under the rewarding criteria. For a wide range of people, the portfolio derived as a result is taken to be excessive in terms of systematic risks. The issue is removed on grounds in which the individuals are capable of investing more wealth than their capacity. The investment is to be done in the particular range of assets that are risk free in nature. There might be situations where there might be an increase in the beta of the portfolio along with the preferences of risk of the individuals (Klingebiel and Rammer 2014). The existence of taxes and such other impositions are to be considered well in the world, which is imperfect. They are considered the most vital part for the investors and as per the process of equilibrium, due to the liability increase, there can be a collection of huge surpluses. References Blake, D., Sarno, L. and Zinna, G., 2014. The market for lemmings: is the investment behaviour of pension funds stabilizing or destabilizing?.Bank of England mimeo. Diane Parker, P., Diane Parker, P., Swanson, N.J., Swanson, N.J., Dugan, M.T. and Dugan, M.T., 2016. Management of pension discount rate and financial health.Journal of Financial Economic Policy,8(2), pp.142-162. Gomez, J.A. and Agudo, L.F., 2016. Are pension funds determinants of financial market stability? A dynamic analysis of OECD countries. Hamdani, A., Kandel, E., Mugerman, Y. and Yafeh, Y., 2016.Incentive Fees and Competition in Pension Funds: Evidence from a Regulatory Experiment(No. w22634). National Bureau of Economic Research. Klingebiel, R. and Rammer, C., 2014. Resource allocation strategy for innovation portfolio management.Strategic Management Journal,35(2), pp.246-268. Lekander, J.R., 2015. Real estate portfolio construction for a multi-asset portfolio.Journal of Property Investment Finance,33(6), pp.548-573. Martinsuo, M., 2013. Project portfolio management in practice and in context.International Journal of Project Management,31(6), pp.794-803. Soon, S.V., Baharumshah, A.Z. and Chan, T.H., 2015. Efficiency Market Hypothesis in an Emerging Market: Does It Really Hold for Malaysia?.Jurnal PAigurusan,42, pp.31-42. Turner, J.R., 2014.The handbook of project-based management(Vol. 92). New York, NY: McGraw-hill. Walden, M.L., 2015. Active Versus Passive Investment Management Of State Pension Plans: Implications For Personal Finance.Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning,26(2), pp.160-171.